inventions transformed the textile industry. Transportation was alsoreformed with inventions of the steam engine by James Watt(1765),the building of the 1st railroad track (1821-1825), and alocomotive called the Rocket built by George Stephenson and his son(1829).Besides the postive effects, the Industrial Revolution also had negativeeffects. Because of urbanization, many cities, whose infrastructuresystem could not keep up with the rapid population growth, wereovercrowded with people looking for jobs. England's cities lackeddecent housing, sanitary codes, education, and police protection. Manyworkers of the working class lived in small, dirty shelters wheresickness was widespread. With the introduction of steam, factoryconditons became worse. Machines injured workers. Many factoryowners wanted to get the cheapest labor possible. To do this, factoryowners hired workers, mostly women and children because the werethe cheapest labor, so they could work long hours for low wages. Asthe working class saw little improvements in living and workingconditions, the middle class, made up of skilled workers, professionals,factory owners, and other well do to people, saw improvements in theirlives. The middle class was now able to afford things that the wealthyonly had acess to, such as servants.In the 19th century, the Industrial Revolution created a major gapbetween the rich and the poor. Many reformers felt that thegovernment needed to play an active role to improve the standard of living for the poor. Many ideas and philosophies were created as areaction to the Industrial Revolution. An economic system, calledsocialism, grew during the 1800s as a reaction to the IndustrialRevolution. It called for more state influence, equal rights, and an endto inhumanity, which stood strongly opposite to individualism andlaissez-fairepolitics. Laissez-fairephilosophy (capitalism), which wasfirst started by Adam Smith, suggested that owners of industry andbusiness set working conditons without the government intervening.Other social movements, including communism, a form of completesocialism where all means of production would be owned by the peopleleaving a small number of manufacturers to control wealth, which wasproposed by Karl Marx, and utilitarianism, which judged ideas,institutions, and actions based on their utility and beleived governmentactions should promote the greatest good for the greatest number of people, was introduced by Jeremy Bentham but led by John Stuart Mill. The Industrial Revolution, like the French Revolution, left a permanentmark on society. Life in the 18th century changed dramatically causingclasses to shift, wealth to increase, and nations to begin assuming
The Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution is known as a period in which fundamental changes occurred in agriculture, textiles and metal manufacture. This period destroyed the old manner of doing things. Many things occurred gradually during the years 1760 and 1850. 1760 is the year in which Industrial Revolution occurred.
The role of the peasants in the Industrial Revolution was to grow a lot of crops and so on. The peasants could supplement their agricultural income and take advantage of the winter months when farming was impossible. Merchants usually reduced the number of workers to avoid the higher wages. The merchant capitalist found it difficult to convince peasants workers to increase the output. The factory system of manufacturing began in the 18th century and is based on concentration of industry into specialised establishments. This system also arose the course of Industrial Revolution. This system replaced old ways of working like with hand tools, with technological ways of working like with robots made in the work place.
According to Adam Smith (1776) the phrase division of labour can justifiably be used to indicate any form of work specialisation such as the division of labour between men and women. The gender division of labour depended on physical strength, women were home menders most of the time and men would usually go hunting. During the industrial revolution child labour was very popular as children would be employed to grownup jobs, children as young as 5-14 years of age worked in Europe, U.S and places within Europe. These children worked in agriculture, domestic workers, factories, mines and etc. Some worked 12hours a day and earning a household income.
Women and children were required to work and often in mines or factories where the working conditions were not good. The Industrial Revolution witnesses a huge growth in the size of British cities. In 1695 the population in Britain was estimated to be 5.5 million .By 1801 the year of the first census, it was 9.3 million and by 1841, 15.9million. This represents a 60% growth rate in just 40 years. Trade unions had struggled to achieve the freedom to exist in the early stages of the industrial revolution. A trade union is an organisation of workers who have come together to achieve common goals in the work place. They were established in the early 18th century. Improvements of the industrialisation resulted in improvements of capitalism. Businesses appeared and the concept of corporation emerged. Large companies would come together and produce great ideas in order to make a profit.
(2011). Trade Unions and the Industrial Revolution. StudyMode.com. Retrieved 05, 2011, from http://www.studymode.com/essays/Trade-Unions-And-The-Industrial-Revolution-697728.html.
Adam Smith.(1776) 1976. An Introduction to the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, eds
Characteristics of Post-Industrial Society Explanation of Post-Industrial Workplace
' The economy experiences a change from the production of goods and to provision of services.
' Human capital becomes a valued form of knowledge.
' Ideas are produced as a way of growing the economy.
' An increase in services such as retail, finance, insurance, banking and professional business services.
' Certain technological innovation and science factors are implemented.
' An increase in the bureaucratic regulation of all aspects of social life. ' In post-industrial society workers, work more hours than hunters and gatherers ever did.
' Working longer hours in order to gain a profit is essential in a post-industrial society.
' A culture of overwork is therefore encouraged to gain more money in order to satisfy ones needs and wants.
' Owners and managers want employees to work longer and harder in order to reach the certain goals placed for the particular business at a specific timeframe.
' The sad reality of today's work is that workers are demanded to work more under pressure with little remuneration.
' The greatest intensification of work occurred during the height of the Industrial Revolution when factory owners abused their power, well knowing that there was no protection for workers by means of trade union or legislation.
' Many women are working today and thus hours and remuneration are increasing to accommodate women.
' According to Hodson & Sullivan(2008) today the desire for leisure is greater than the desire for leisure.
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