Stephen Cole KleeneKLAY-nee (January 5, 1909 – January 25, 1994) was an Americanmathematician. One of the students of Alonzo Church, Kleene, along with Rózsa Péter, Alan Turing, Emil Post, and others, is best known as a founder of the branch of mathematical logic known as recursion theory, which subsequently helped to provide the foundations of theoretical computer science. Kleene's work grounds the study of computable functions. A number of mathematical concepts are named after him: Kleene hierarchy, Kleene algebra, the Kleene star (Kleene closure), Kleene's recursion theorem and the Kleene fixpoint theorem. He also invented regular expressions, and made significant contributions to the foundations of mathematical intuitionism.
Although his last name is commonly pronounced KLEE-nee or kleen, Kleene himself pronounced it KLAY-nee. His son, Ken Kleene, wrote: "As far as I am aware this pronunciation is incorrect in all known languages. I believe that this novel pronunciation was invented by my father."
Kleene was awarded the BA degree from Amherst College in 1930. He was awarded the Ph.D. in mathematics from Princeton University in 1934. His thesis, entitled A Theory of Positive Integers in Formal Logic, was supervised by Alonzo Church. In the 1930s, he did important work on Church's lambda calculus. In 1935, he joined the mathematics department at the University of Wisconsin–Madison, where he spent nearly all of his career. After two years as an instructor, he was appointed assistant professor in 1937.
While a visiting scholar at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, 1939–40, he laid the foundation for recursion theory, an area that would be his lifelong research interest. In 1941, he returned to Amherst College, where he spent one year as an associate professor of mathematics.
During World War II, Kleene was a lieutenant commander in the United States Navy. He was an instructor of navigation at the U.S. Naval Reserve's Midshipmen's School in New York, and then a project director at the Naval Research Laboratory in Washington, D.C.
In 1946, Kleene returned to Wisconsin, becoming a full professor in 1948 and the Cyrus C. MacDuffee professor of mathematics in 1964. He was chair of the Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, 1962–63, and Dean of the College of Letters and Science from 1969 to 1974. The latter appointment he took on despite the considerable student unrest of the day, stemming from the Vietnam War. He retired from the University of Wisconsin in 1979. In 1999 the mathematics library at the University of Wisconsin was renamed in his honor.
Kleene's teaching at Wisconsin resulted in three texts in mathematical logic, Kleene (1952, 1967) and Kleene and Vesley (1965). The first two are often cited and still in print. Kleene (1952) wrote alternative proofs to the Gödel's incompleteness theorems that enhanced their canonical status and made them easier to teach and understand. Kleene and Vesley (1965) is the classic American introduction to intuitionist logic and mathematics.
Kleene served as president of the Association for Symbolic Logic, 1956–58, and of the International Union of History and Philosophy of Science, 1961. In 1990, he was awarded the National Medal of Science. The importance of Kleene's work led to the saying that "Kleeneness is next to Gödelness".
Kleene and his wife Nancy Elliott had four children. He had a lifelong devotion to the family farm in Maine. An avid mountain climber, he had a strong interest in nature and the environment, and was active in many conservation causes.
At each conference of the Symposium on Logic in Computer Science the Kleene award, in honour of S.C. Kleene, is given for the best student paper.
This article is about the British writer. For the American tenor saxophonist, see Steve Cole.
Stephen Cole (born 1971) (also credited as Steve Cole) is an English author of children's books and science fiction. He was also in charge of BBC Worldwide's merchandising of the BBC Television series Doctor Who between 1997 and 1999: this was a role which found him deciding on which stories should be released on video, commissioning and editing a range of fiction and non-fiction titles, producing audiobooks and acting as executive producer on the Big Finish Productions range of Doctor Who audio dramas
In 2013 Ian Fleming Publications announced that Cole would continue the Young Bond series first penned by Charlie Higson, with four new books to further explore the life of the teenage James Bond. The first of these, Shoot to Kill, was published in the UK on 6 November 2014; Cole is credited as Steve Cole for this work.
Early life and career
Cole was brought up in rural Bedfordshire. He attended the University of East Anglia 1989-92 where he read English Literature and Film Studies, graduating his BA course with first class honours. After a brief stint working in local radio with BBC Radio Bedfordshire (now Three Counties) he became a junior assistant at BBC Children's Magazines in 1993. By 1996 he was Group Editor, Pre-School Magazines, managing a team and overseeing the production of various magazines and special editions. In summer 1996 he wrote his first children's books: Cars on Mars, Alien Olympics, School on Saturn and Mucky Martians, a collection of pop-up poetry books published by Levinson the following year.
Cole's counterpart in BBC Children's Books was Nuala Buffini two floors above, and the two often met for lunch and meetings. Cole's curiosity was piqued when he learned BBC Books were taking back the rights to publish Doctor Who fiction in the wake of the 1996 Doctor Who TV Movie – and that Buffini would be commissioning for a new range of Eighth Doctor Adventures and Past Doctor Adventures until a dedicated staff member was recruited. Buffini was soon swamped with novel submissions and Cole's involvement with the range began with reading the slush pile. Having been a fan of Doctor Who all his life, when the position of Project Editor, Sci-Fi Titles was advertised, Cole applied and was successful.
Buffini had commissioned the first six books in the Eighth Doctor Adventures range, although one of these — Legacy of the Daleks — was held back for publication later on in the range to prevent two Dalek stories being published in consecutive months. This means that the first novel commissioned by Cole was actually the sixth published, Lawrence Miles' Alien Bodies. Cole also edited the BBC's Short Trips short story collections, for which he began to write under the pseudonyms of "Tara Samms" and "Paul Grice". He has since published other work under these pen-names, including the 2003 Doctor Who novella Frayed, part of a series published by Telos Publishing Ltd. He has also written several short stories and audio plays for Big Finish Productions. A clue to Samm's true identity can be found in the "About the author" section at the end of Frayed in which the author's insomniac dog is described with the enigmatic phrase "he slept once" — an anagram of "Stephen Cole".
In addition to the books he also commissioned and abridged stories for inclusion on various Doctor Who talking books and selected TV stories to be released on home video.
Worn down by the grind of commissioning and editing 22 80,000 word novels per year as well as producing nonfiction titles, audiobooks and videos, Cole shifted roles in the Children's department to become Special Development Editor in 1999, commissioning and writing children's books tying into series such as Walking With Dinosaurs and Microsoap. He retained responsibility for certain of the Doctor Who novels on a freelance basis before passing them to the care of author-editor Justin Richards.
Leaving BBC Worldwide in October 1999 Cole moved to be Managing Editor for Ladybird Books. But while he continued to write TV and film tie-ins he missed involvement with fiction. After a stint as senior editor at Simon and Schuster Children's Books (where he commissioned books from Who writers Paul Magrs and Justin Richards) he went freelance in 2002, editing fewer books in favour of writing more of his own. Cole's first original fiction was a series called The Wereling, a trilogy of young adult horror books published by Bloomsbury. He followed this up with a further trilogy detailing the adventures of misfit criminal teen genius Jonah Wish and his friends – Thieves Like Us, Thieves Till We Die (also released as The Aztec Code) and The Bloodline Cipher. He has also written several more Doctor Who titles, including four tying in with the new series.
Astrosaurs and beyond
Main article: Astrosaurs
Cole's most successful titles to date are the Astrosaurs children's books, published under the name Steve Cole. The first two titles were published 3 February 2005. So far there are twelve Astrosaurs books available including a special edition book written especially for World Book Day 2007 (published 1 March 2007) with further titles to follow. Astrosaurs was followed up by the series Cows In Action (first two titles published 3 May 2007). There are four Cows In Action books published to date with the fifth due to be published on 5 June 2008 and further titles to follow. An Astrosaurs spin-off series, Astrosaurs Academy, began in May 2008.
- Riddle of the Raptors, published 1 February 2005
- The Hatching Horror, published 1 February 2005
- The Seas of Doom, published 5 May 2005
- The Mind-Swap Menace, published 4 August 2005
- The Skies of fear, published 5 January 2006
- The Space Ghosts, published 2 March 2006
- The Day of the Dino Droids, published 1 June 2006
- The Terror Bird Trap, published 3 August 2006
- The Teeth of the T-Rex, published 1 March 2007
- The Planet of Peril, published 5 April 2007
- The Star Pirates, published 7 June 2007
- The Claws of Christmas, published 4 October 2007
- The Sun Snatchers, published 7 February 2008
- The Revenge of The Fang, published 7 August 2008
- The Carnivore Curse, published 1 January 2009
- The Dreams of Dread published 4 June 2009
- The Robot Raiders published 28 January 2010
- The Twist of Time published 29 April 2010
- The Sabre Tooth Secret published 3 February 2011
- The Forest of Evil published 4 August 2011
- Megabookasaurus! published 3 September 2009
- Earth Attack! published 6 October 2011
- The T.rex Invasion published 26 April 2012
- The Castle of Frankensaur published 19 November 2012
- Steve Cole has also written a series on Tegg's training - see Astrosaurs Academy
Cows in Action
- The Ter-moo-nators 3 May 2007
- The Moo-my's Curse 3 May 2007
- The Roman Moo-stery 6 September 2007
- The Wild West Moo-nster 4 January 2008
- World War Moo 7 August 2008
- Battle for Christ-moos 2 October 2008
- The Pirate Mootiny 2 April 2009
- The Moo-gic of Merlin 6 August 2009
- The Victorian Moo-ders 1 January 2010
- The Moo-Limpics 4 October 2010
- First Cows on the Mooon 2 June 2011
- The Viking Emoo-gency 2 February 2012
- Destination: Danger! – 1 May 2008
- Contest Carnage – 1 May 2008
- Terror Underground – 4 September 2008
- Jungle Horror – 5 February 2009
- Deadly Drama- 2 July 2009
- Christmas Crisis - 1 October 2009
- Volcano Invaders! - 1 April 2010
- Space Kidnap - 3 March 2011
The Slime Squad
- The Slime Squad vs The Toxic Teeth
- The Slime Squad vs The Fearsome Fists
- The Slime Squad vs The Cyber Poos
- The Slime Squad vs The Supernatural Squid
- The Slime Squad vs The Killer Socks
- The Slime Squad vs The Last Chance Chicken
- The Slime Squad vs The Alligator Army
- The Slime Squad vs The Conquering Conks
The Hunting, or Z Trilogy
- Z. Rex
- Z. Raptor
- Z. Apocalypse
- Tripwire DEATHWING
Young Adult fiction
The Wereling Trilogy
- The Wereling: Wounded 2003
- The Wereling II: Prey 2004
- The Wereling III: Resurrection 2004
Thieves Like Us Trilogy
- Thieves Like Us 2006
- The Aztec Code 2007 (also published as Thieves Till We Die)
- The Bloodline Cipher 2008
Young James Bond
Doctor Who novels
- Parallel 59 (with Natalie Dallaire), 2000
- The Ancestor Cell (with Peter Anghelides), 2000
- Vanishing Point, 2001
- The Shadow in the Glass (with Justin Richards), 2001
- Ten Little Aliens, 2002
- Timeless, 2003
- Frayed, 2003
- The Monsters Inside, 2005
- To the Slaughter, 2005
- The Feast of the Drowned, 2006
- The Art of Destruction, 2006
- Sting of the Zygons, 2007
Miscellaneous TV tie-in children's books
- The Adventures of Mr. Bean: Bear Essentials 2002
- The Adventures of Mr. Bean: No Pets! 2002
- Sea Captain Ned 2004
- The Thirsty Penguin 2004
- Josie's Big Jump 2004
Works published by Big Finish
Bernice Summerfield novels
Doctor Who plays
- The Plague Herds of Excelis (Bernice Summerfield, Iris Wildthyme)
- The Dance of the Dead (Bernice Summerfield)
- The Relics of Jegg-Sau (Bernice Summerfield)
- Gallifrey: Square One (Gallifrey)
- Gallifrey: Spirit (Gallifrey)
- Gallifrey: Fractures (Gallifrey)
- The Devil in Ms Wildthyme (Iris Wildthyme)
- Many Happy Returns (Bernice Summerfield; with Xanna Eve Chown, Paul Cornell, Stephen Fewell, Simon Guerrier, Scott Handcock, Rebecca Levene, Jacqueline Rayner, Justin Richards, Miles Richardson, Eddie Robson and Dave Stone)